Once upon a time, a long time ago, there weren't many houses with indoor plumbing. In fact it wasn't until the middle of last century that most homes in western Europe were fitted with indoor plumbing. Before that, they used outhouses like in the photos, chamber pots (which were often just emptied out in the streets) or holes in the ground. I think I can even remember an outhouse at my grandparents' farm, even though by the time I was born they had indoor plumbing as well.
Families living in cities weren't as lucky as people living in the country. Yes, there would still be outhouses, but they would have to be shared with all families living in the same building or even the whole street. People living in those conditions were usually the poorest of the poor and would not really have enough money for the basics. Combine that with dirty living conditions and near open sewers and you can understand people didn't live to a right old age!
Nowadays most of Europe has indoor plumbing. At least the western part of this continent does, I am not sure about the poorest areas in the east. And I must admit, when it's raining outside and there's a cold wind blowing, I am glad I don't have to step outside to use the bathroom!
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